Prediction of Pro-inflammatory Peptides

Cytokines are regulators of host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, and trauma. Some cytokines act to make disease worse (proinflammatory), whereas others serve to reduce inflammation and promote healing (Pro-inflammatory). Attention also has focused on blocking cytokines, which are harmful to the host, particularly during overwhelming infection. Interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are proinflammatory cytokines, and when they are administered to humans, they produce fever, inflammation, tissue destruction, and, in some cases, shock and death.

Excessive chronic production of inflammatory cytokines contribute to inflammatory diseases, that have been linked to different diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Dysregulation has also been linked to depression and other neurological diseases. A balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is necessary to maintain health. Aging and exercise also play a role in the amount of inflammation from the release of proinflammatory cytokines.

Peptides that induce proinflammatory cytokines are known as proinflammatory inducing peptides (PIPs), which can be utilized as therapeutic candidates to alleviate and cure various diseases. For example, Helicobacter pylori produces a cecropin-like peptide [i.e., Hp(2–20)] that induces a proinflammatory response in human neutrophils, thereby acting as a potent antineoplastic agent. Prostate-specific antigen peptides have also been used in immunotherapies. Human cathelicidin LL-37 proinflammatory peptide has a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid disease, atherosclerosis, and antibacterial activities. The gG-2p20 peptide induces a proinflammatory response by recruiting and activating phagocytic cells, thus reducing the function of NK cells

Kurata's Lab, 2020
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